I needed to take a break from my series and address this Memorial Day weekend. I always knew it was more than just BBQs and picnics. It is a national holiday to honor and celebrate the soldiers who died for our country. But what is the history behind Memorial Day? When did it start and for what reason? Something in me keeps saying there’s more to it for the black communities.
I took time and did some research concerning Memorial Day. There are places all up and down the East Coast that claim to be the “birthplace” of Memorial Day or as it was called back then, Decorations Day. History books state that President Lyndon Johnson in May of 1966, declared Waterloo, NY the official birthplace of Memorial Day. His decision was based on General John Logan’s General Order No.11 which proclaimed Decoration Day on May 5, 1868. Yet, being a curious student of History and being fully aware of black history deletion in US history books I looked closer. The one that rings truth to me is the claim in Charleston, South Carolina. Rather than give you a brief summary, I believe David W. Blight’s writings on the event is more interesting.
“But for the earliest and most remarkable Memorial Day, we must return to where the war began. By the spring of 1865, after a long siege and prolonged bombardment, the beautiful port city of Charleston, S.C., lay in ruin and occupied by Union troops. Among the first soldiers to enter and march up Meeting Street singing liberation songs was the 21st United States Colored Infantry; their commander accepted the city’s official surrender. Whites had largely abandoned the city, but thousands of blacks, mostly former slaves, had remained, and they conducted a series of commemorations to declare their sense of the meaning of the war.
The largest of these events, forgotten until I had some extraordinary luck in an archive at Harvard, took place on May 1, 1865. During the final year of the war, the Confederates had converted the city’s Washington Race Course and Jockey Club into an outdoor prison. Union captives were kept in horrible conditions in the interior of the track; at least 257 died of disease and were hastily buried in a mass grave behind the grandstand. After the Confederate evacuation of Charleston black workmen went to the site, reburied the Union dead properly, and built a high fence around the cemetery.
They whitewashed the fence and built an archway over an entrance on which they inscribed the words, “Martyrs of the Race Course.” The symbolic power of this Low Country planter aristocracy’s bastion was not lost on the freedpeople, who then, in cooperation with white missionaries and teachers, staged a parade of 10,000 on the track. A New York Tribune correspondent witnessed the event, describing “a procession of friends and mourners as South Carolina and the United States never saw before.” The procession was led by 3,000 black schoolchildren carrying armloads of roses and singing the Union marching song “John Brown’s Body.” Several hundred black women followed with baskets of flowers, wreaths and crosses.
Then came black men marching in cadence, followed by contingents of Union infantrymen. Within the cemetery enclosure a black children’s choir sang “We’ll Rally Around the Flag,” the “Star-Spangled Banner” and spirituals before a series of black ministers read from the Bible. After the dedication the crowd dispersed into the infield and did what many of us do on Memorial Day: enjoyed picnics, listened to speeches and watched soldiers drill.
Among the full brigade of Union infantrymen participating were the famous 54th Massachusetts and the 34th and 104th United States Colored Troops, who performed a special double-columned march around the gravesite. The war was over, and Memorial Day had been founded by African-Americans in a ritual of remembrance and consecration. The war, they had boldly announced, had been about the triumph of their emancipation over a slaveholders’ republic.
They were themselves the true patriots. Despite the size and some newspaper coverage of the event, its memory was suppressed by white Charlestonians in favor of their own version of the day. From 1876 on, after white Democrats took back control of South Carolina politics and the Lost Cause defined public memory and race relations, the day’s racecourse origin vanished.
Indeed, 51 years later, the president of the Ladies’ Memorial Association of Charleston received an inquiry from a United Daughters of the Confederacy official in New Orleans asking if it was true that blacks had engaged in such a burial rite in 1865; the story had apparently migrated westward in community memory. Mrs. S. C. Beckwith, leader of the association, responded tersely, “I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this.”
There are quite a few things I find very interesting about the above excerpt. 1 – If the Union soldiers were treated horribly, how much more horrible were the black Union soldiers treated? And I doubt the formerly owned property aka slaves aka black Union soldiers were even buried. Think about how many black men and women all over the world who have died defending this country were just left on the spot where they died.
2 – Once again, something we created has been stolen from us in History. 3 – Not much has changed since then. Now, unfortunately they leave the bodies of our innocent friends, family, men and women and children killed while being black in the streets while we clean their blood with our tears. Even while they send our fallen soldiers back home to us.
So, this Memorial Day we have every reason to celebrate and be proud of not only our fallen soldiers in combat but also our fallen brothers and sisters who were taken from us unjustly. Create a memorable day this Memorial Day so you too can add to our rich cultural heritage.